Solar panel water pumps are used in private houses, cottages, villages, medical clinics, etc. The water pump can be powered by its own PV array or by the main system that powers the system. A raised storage tank can be used, or a second pump called a booster pump can provide the necessary water pressure. Or the main battery system could provide storage instead of tanks. When sunlight is scarce, harvesting rainwater can supplement solar pumping. To design a system, it helps to look at the whole picture and consider all the resources.
Ranchers in the Americas, Australia and Southern Africa are enthusiastic users of solar water pumps. Their water sources are spread over extensive pastures, there are few power lines, and transportation and maintenance costs are high. Some ranchers use solar water pumps to distribute several kilometers (over 5 kilometers) of pipes. Others use portable systems and move them from one water source to another.
Solar panel pumps are used in small farms, orchards, vineyards and gardens. It is most economical to power the pump directly from the PV array (no batteries), store the water in a tank, and then distribute the pump via gravity flow. In situations where pressurization is required, the battery stabilizes the voltage for consistent flow and distribution, and can eliminate the need for a storage tank. Batteries also introduce cost, complexity and additional maintenance.